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桂川 光  / 人間環境論集9
関東州阿片令制定をめぐる一考察
<著者名>  桂川 光 
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
The establishment of a Japanese government ordinance on opium administration in Guandong Leased Territory, the aim of which was to implement opium administration in accordance with the Hague Opium Treaty, resulted, in fact, in virtual permission of open opium-smoking in the region. Japan had been accused of being the major agent responsible for the abuse of opium-smoking in China during the early 1920s, and the establishment of a new opium ordinance to deal properly with the issue in the region could otherwise be a good chance to soothe the accusation, and lead easily to raise Japan's prestige as "One of the Five Powers". Therefore, the result means that the Japanese government failed to take responsibility as a Great Power to make an active contribution in laying the foundation for an international co-operative system to control and extirpate the evil of opium-smoking. This proves to have been a diplomatic blunder. One of the factors in the government's failure is the weight of opium revenue. It was very obvious that the Japanese would have run into financial difficulties, if there would not be opium revenue at all, or not a sufficient amount of it. The Japanese government gave the stability of ruling Guandong precedence over taking its responsibility in the international arena at the time.
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北野 雄士 / 人間環境論集9
「人に忍びざるの政」を目指して―横井小楠の政策論と『孟子』引用
<著者名>  北野 雄士
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
Yokoi Shonan, a Confucian scholar and samurai who was active in the late Tokugawa Period, often quoted passages from the Chinese classic Mencius in his letters and writings. Some scholars have pointed out some of these quotations and made claims concerning the influence of Mencius on Yokoi. But we do not fully understand to what extent and degree this Chinese classic influenced his thinking. In this paper I have tried to examine the quotations of Mencius in Yokoi’s writings and its influence on him. My analysis of these passages, taken with the facts of his life and activities, shows he was deeply influenced by the classical Chinese conception of “compassionate government” founded on the“ sensitive heart” for the suffering of others. Yokoi explains these notions as being the moral principle in the context of the ancient Yao and Shun period of China, and the continuation of these concepts through the Three Dynasties of the Hsia, the Yin and the Chou periods. Based on this conception of benevolence, Yokoi criticized the policies of the Higo domain (Kumamoto Prefecture) and the Tokugawa shogunate, and proposed new reform policies for the people of Higo, which later were significant for the building of modern Japan.
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神崎 ゆかり / 人間環境論集9
マーガレット・エドソンの『ウィット』―ゴシック的「狂気の科学者」のモチーフ―
<著者名>  神崎 ゆかり
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
Margaret Edson's first play Wit (1993), which won the Pulitzer Prize in 1999, features Vivian Bearing, a professor specializing in John Donne's metaphysical poetry. She is hospitalized dying of advanced ovarian cancer. Her doctors Kelekian and Jason have Vivian undergo an experimental treatment with strong side effects. The treatment is very aggressive and lasts for no less than eight weeks. For the doctors, Vivian is no longer a human being but“material”for their medical research, or in Dr. Moreau's term a“problem”for their intellectual desires.Focusing on the unsympathetic attitudes of Kelekian and Jason toward their patient Vivian, this play can be classified within the Gothic genre and containing the“Mad Scientist”motif. What allows this play from falling into a simple dichotomy between the assailants and the victim, however, is the fact that Vivian herself shares the character of“Mad Scientist.”This paper analyzes how Vivian can be characterized as a mad scientist along with her doctors.
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濱崎 竜英,西村 昌次,松田 典友,村井 雄樹,鈴木 實,菅原 正孝 / 人間環境論集9
ひも状生物接触担体を用いた下水中の汚濁物質除去とリンの回収
<著者名>  濱崎 竜英,西村 昌次,松田 典友,村井 雄樹,鈴木 實,菅原 正孝
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
 The purpose of this study is to remove pollution matter such as organic matter and nutrients from sewage using a bio film method with string media and then to recover the phosphorus from the used string media. The activated sludge method is the most popular method for sewage treatment. However this method produces a lot of excess sludge and increases the costs of the sewage treatment facility. The results of our experiments on removal of organic matter show that a bio film method using string bio film media can remove organic matters in sewage. Sewage also contains high concentrations of phosphorus, which should be removed to improve the treated water quality but is an important nutrient in agriculture. Since phosphorous becomes depleted in soil by agricultural activity, it must be added regularly to maintain soil fertility. This makes recovered phosphorous a valuable byproduct of sewage treatment. This study therefore also evaluated phosphorus recovery from the used string media with hot water and confirmed the possibility of phosphorous recovery by that method.
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田中 みさ子 / 人間環境論集9
都市の住宅ストックとしての3階建て戸建て住宅の現状と課題
<著者名>  田中 みさ子
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
This research considers whether the three-story detached houses currently located in urban areas is viable city housing stock.The method of research involved a questionnaire survey of residents living in singlethree-story houses to clarify their amenity, and degree of continued resident habitation intention.The results show that since plottage is narrow and cramped, barrier-free and other amenities are compromised, and clearly these houses lack functional elements to alleviate problems faced by their aging residents.Moreover, since there is much dissatisfaction with the extent of earthquake resistance, I think that an obligation to provide seismic reinforcement, and regulating the area of the site, and other safety or amenity features, are required in order for the single threestory house to become viable city housing stock.
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前迫 ゆり / 人間環境論集9
カメラトラップ法による春日山照葉樹林の哺乳類と鳥類
<著者名>  前迫 ゆり
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
 I investigated the diversity of mammals and birds with camera traps at eight sites in the Kasugayama Forest Reserve; World Cultural Heritage and Special natural monument in Central Japan. I set up a total of 10 automatic sensor cameras at eight plots for one year from October 2007 to September 2008. I obtained pictures of nine species of mammals: Sika deer (Cervus nippon), Wild boar (Sus scrofa), Raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), Japanese marten (Martes melampus), Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), Large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), Japanese giant flying squirrel (Petaurista leucogenys), Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Japanese hare (Lepus brachyurus), and seven species of birds: Great tit (Parus major), Varied tit (Parus varius), Red-flanked bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus), White-bellied green pigeon (Sphenurus sieboldii), Eyebrowed thrush (Turdus obscurus), Ural owl (Strix uralensis), Large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchos). Sika deer comprised 83.5 % of the mammals photographed at all points, followed by the wild boar at 7.2 % , in 1478 camera days. These mammals and birds are frequently photographed in winter. This study suggests that Kasugayama Forest Reserve plays an important role for maintaining a diversity of mammals and birds, and the diversity of mammals and birds was dependent on the vegetation, the canopy condition and the intensity of human impact.
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三村 覚,市川 優一郎 / 人間環境論集9
自律訓練法の習得過程に関する事例的研究
<著者名>  三村 覚,市川 優一郎
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
  The purpose of this study was to establish when Autogenic Training (AT) was subjectively mastered and correspond this with the physiological index, and examine those concrete features in a case study. The participant in the experiment was a 19 years old male, who had never before experienced AT. Only the“heavy feeling” AT was executed, and AT was performed over a period of 42 days. Experimentation in the laboratory was conducted every week. In the experiment, the psychological index used the STAI (A-State) and AT subjective evaluation standard, and the physiological index used electroencephalogram(EEG), electrocardiogram(ECG), and respiratory movement. The results can be summarized accordingly;  1 ) After AT had been subjectively mastered, distinctive change appeared in the physiology index for 1-2 weeks.  2 ) Power value of alpha wave of EEG decreases as the execution frequency of AT increases, on the other hand, the heart rate decreases.
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佐藤 真治,牧田 茂 / 人間環境論集9
心筋梗塞後患者における集団スポーツリハビリテーションが認知機能に与える影響
<著者名>  佐藤 真治,牧田 茂
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
Purpose: Although cardiac rehabilitation is associated with numerous benefits, including improved cardiovascular health and a lower mortality rate, the current challenge is to examine whether cardiac rehabilitation can also provide cognitive benefits. This study was conducted to determine the effects of a cardiac sports rehabilitation program (CSP) on cognitive function in elderly patients. Methods: Twenty-one male patients after myocardial infarction (MI) (mean age: 68.8 years, mean interval time after a MI 42.1 months) completed this study. The CSP group (n=11) practiced combined Tai Chi and table tennis training once a week together with conventional exercise training for 1 year. The control group (n=10) carried out conventional exercise training only. Cognitive function was measured using a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and 1 year later. Results: At baseline, the MMSE score and other clinical characteristics did not differ between the two groups. After 1 year, the CSP group showed a slight increase in the MMSE score (from 26.1 +/- 1.92 to 27.3 +/- 2.81, p=0.153), while the control group showed a significant decrease (from 27.0 +/- 2.00 to 25.4 +/- 3.27, p=0.035). Conclusions: Supervised CSP may have implications for the prevention of cognitive decline in elderly patients after MI.
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武元 前川,大賀 康弘,三野 耕 / 人間環境論集9
身長発育と比体表面積からみた高校ボクシング選手の体重調整に関する実践的研究
<著者名>  武元 前川,大賀 康弘,三野 耕
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
 This practical research case study is to develop a method for weight adjustment for long-term weight loss that takes into account the growth of height and specific body surface area ( : s = body surface area / weight) of male high school students training to be boxers. Thirty-two boxers participated in the inter-high-school athletic competition ( : IHSAC) and thirty-two boxers did not participate in the IHSAC. As a result, the following was revealed. 1 .Most boxers who participated in the IHSAC, were higher than the 3 percentile of standard value for 1/s, compared to boxers who did not participate in the IHSAC. 2 .The height growth of boxers who participated in the IHSAC and boxers who did not participate in the IHSAC fell within the normal range of the growth standard value. Many boxers who participated in the IHSAC were located in the bottom of the normal range for 1/s versus the boxers who did not participate in the IHSAC. 3 .It can be concluded that the weight adjustment based on the growth of height and the specific body surface area increased maintenance of health and performances of boxers.
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田邉 智,川端 浩 一,梅林 薫,伊藤 章 / 人間環境論集9
テニスのグランドストローク時におけるフットワークの基礎的研究
<著者名>  田邉 智,川端 浩 一,梅林 薫,伊藤 章
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
The present study examined changes in running speed, step length, step frequency and step width to clarify the mechanism of footwork for running quickly during tennis ground-stroke. The subjects were 17 male professional tennis players who participated in the AIG Japan Open Tennis 2006 in Tokyo, Japan. The movements of tennis players were recorded using video camera during tennis ground-stroke. The X-Y coordinates of player's toes in foot contact were calculated by the two-dimensional direct linear transformation method.Tennis players reached the hitting point using almost two steps when chasing the tennis ball quickly from the center mark of the tennis court. The running speeds in the 2nd step were faster than those in the 1st step. There was a significant positive correlation between the step length and running speed in the 2nd step (r = 0.508, p < 0.05) while no significant correlation was observed between the step frequency and running speed in the 2nd step. The step length and running speed in the 2nd step showed significant positive correlations with the step width in the 1st step (r = 0.516, p < 0.05 ; r = 0.561, p < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the increase of running speed in the 2nd step is the result of step length increase rather than step frequency in the 2nd step, and it is suggested that the step width in the 1st step contributed to the increase of step length in the 2nd step.
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高橋 浩二 / 人間環境論集9
身体教育を通じた身体観の変容可能性の探究(その1)―運動実践における[まなざし]の考察から―
<著者名>  高橋 浩二
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
The purpose of this paper is to show the possibility for changing the viewpoint of human body by movement practice. In order to show this possibility, a consideratation of the relationship between“ regard” and the practice of human movement is necessary. The results are as follows. (1) “Regard” is closely related to the human body. It is necessary to correspond to others that we always need to be successful in our interaction with others. (2) “Regard” makes interaction with others possible. This interaction brings about most direct and purest relationships with others. This“ regard” has three functions, namely, of“ cutting out”,“ giving meaning” and“ acting consistently”. (3)“ Regard” is a function based on the category of one’s own body. This category of the body is established in the “absolute here”. That is, we work on others by presenting “regard” from one’s own body. Through this examination, “I” can find the interaction at the physical level. It is“ physical interaction” with others that is based on“physical communication” or“physical injection”. (4) The possibility for changing the viewpoint of human body by movement practice depends on learning the practice of“regard”. A change in the human body leads to a change in“ regard”. Especially, it is possible to take on a new viewpoint of human body in physical education. This viewpoint is based on the peculiarity of our own body.
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原田 一美 / 人間環境論集9
ハンス・F・K・ギュンターの人種論
<著者名>  原田 一美
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
 1922年に刊行された『ドイツ民族の人種学』は,大きな評判を呼び,ベスト・セラーとなった。著者のハンス・F・K・ギュンターは一躍「人種論のスター」に躍り出て,ワイマル期ばかりか,ナチズム期の人種学,人種主義に大きな影響を与えることになる。 本稿では,このギュンターに焦点を当て,彼の人種論の内容を検討し,それに若干の考察を加えた。 ギュンターの人種論は,人文科学と自然科学を総合するような内容をもっており,その「科学性」ゆえに多くの知識人を惹きつけた。また,外観から人種を判断できるまなざしを鍛えることを重視し,多くの顔写真を掲載することによって,人びとが日常生活で目にする顔からその人の「人種」を判定できるような「基準」を提示した。このようなギュンターの人種論が評判を呼んだことは,ワイマル期における人種意識の高まりを示すとともに,逆に彼の著作が人種意識をさらに高めるのに貢献したということもできる。 また,ナチズム期には,彼の人種分類が学校や党の諸団体においても教材として利用された。親衛隊では,ギュンターが提示した多様な人種の表現型が隊員を選別する際の重要な基準にされたのである。
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藤田 眞一 / 人間環境論集9
光化学オキシダント短期予測モデルの開発
<著者名>  藤田 眞一
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
筆者らが開発した新旧2つの光化学スモッグ緊急時対策支援のための光化学オキシダント濃度の短期予測モデルを紹介した。 旧モデルは,1980年代に開発したモデルであり,数量化?類により気象インデックスを予測し,予測した気象インデックスと大気汚染常時監視データを用いて,改良型GMDHにより3時間先のオキシダント濃度を時系列予測するGMDHと数量化理論の複合モデルであった。予測には,即時に予測計算ができるよう,大気汚染常時監視測定局からオンラインリアルタイムで得られる大気汚染測定データ及び気象データのみを使用した。予測モデルの評価結果として,光化学スモッグの注意報の基準である120ppb(0.12ppm)付近の高濃度域においてもよく整合していた。 新モデルは,気象台からその日の朝9時に得られる高層気象データなどの広域気象データと,大気汚染常時監視測定局データにより,オキシダントの日最高濃度を予測するモデルであり,クラスタ内で構築される重回帰式の線形性に配慮してクラスタリングと重回帰式の同時決定を行うファジィモデルである。モデル化に当たっては,光化学スモッグの注意報の基準である120ppb(0.12ppm)付近の高濃度域においてもよく整合するよう重み付き重回帰モデルを採用した。予測モデルの評価結果として,光化学スモッグの発令地域全域を対象とした場合においても,光化学スモッグの注意報付近の高濃度域においても十分に整合していた。特に,新しいモデルは常時監視測定局における測定項目が少なくても近傍の測定局のデータで補完できることから,測定項目が縮小されている現状に合ったモデルであるといえる。
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谷口 省吾 / 人間環境論集9
寝屋川流域における医薬品類および有機フッ素化合物の存在実態
<著者名>  谷口 省吾
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
 PPCPs and PFCs are widely detected in a large number of water bodies these days, which is a matter of concern among people. PFOS was recently added to POPs category, and its limited production and uses can be expected in future. Presence of PPCPs and PFCs in the Neya River, Osaka, Japan was investigated in this study. Samples from the river (six representative sampling points, November 2008) were pretreated (SPE) and analyzed using LCMS/MS. Total sixteen PFCs were detected in the samples. PFOA exhibited the largest concentrations among the detected carboxylic acids in addition to significantly larger concentrations of PFHpA and PFHxA. Similarly PFOS showed the largest concentrations among the detected sulfonic acids. Total seventeen PPCPs belonging to three categories (antihyperlipoproteinemic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic and antibiotic) were detected in the samples, where Clofibric acid, Clarithromycin and LVFX exhibited relatively larger concentrations. Though concentrations of individual PPCPs detected in this study were small, total concentrations of those belonging to a particular category exceeded 100ng/L. Therefore, total concentration of PPCPs belonging to a category rather than their individual concentrations may better describe their occurrence in natural water bodies like rivers.
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高浪 龍平 / 人間環境論集9
白色腐朽菌によるアゾ染料の脱色とその挙動について
<著者名>  高浪 龍平
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
Use of white-rot fungi in bioremediation is gaining considerable attention due to their unique degradation capability. Successful application of white-rot fungi to degrade high concentration organic pollutants is expected to open a new era in bioremediation. This paper aimed to elucidate decolorization characteristics of two azo dyes (Tropaeolin orange and Evans blue) by two white-rot fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus versicolor) in presence of glucose and HOBt by laboratory experiments. Both P. chrysosporium and C. versicolor could decolorize the dyes. However, decolorization of T. orange was comparatively difficult, which was attributed to its short-chain molecular structure. Decolorization of T. orange by P. chrysosporium was characterized by change in color in the initial stage, which did not continue in the latter stage. The distinct color change with E. blue until the end was attributed to its long-chain molecular structure. Decolorization and degradations of the dyes were correlated, and their degradation pathways were proposed.
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多久和 文則,成山 公一 / 人間環境論集9
‘Teen Task Force’ によるAIDS 教育 〜米国ニューヨーク州の高等学校の場合〜
<著者名>  多久和 文則,成山 公一
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
 まだ病名が付いていなかったHIV/AIDSが,1981年,アメリカで最初にメディアに報じられた時は『Medical Mystery(メディカルミステリー)』として騒がれていた。丁度その頃,多久和は1981年? 1982年にかけて米国ネブラスカ大学にバスケットボール留学,成山は1980年からオレゴン大学に居て,当時まだ名前もない原因不明の奇病に取り組む医師団が,宇宙服のような防護服を着てビニールカーテンの中で治療にあたっている様子を現地のニュースで見ていた。この病気がAIDSと病名付けられたのは1982年である。 その数年後,世界AIDSデー参加のために来日したHIV感染者やAIDSを発症した人達が,日本の入国審査場で入国を拒否された事件は,インターネットの無い時代であったが即座に世界中に流れた。本報告は,そのようなHIV/AIDS 流行開始時期の1980年代を振り返ってみた。
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澤井 亨 / 人間環境論集9
バレーボール「セッター」における技術・戦術の変遷とスキルアップ方法についての解説
<著者名>  澤井 亨
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
 バレーボール競技において,過去の公式ルールの変更によって進化していったバレーボールスタイルと,バレーボールのホジション「セッター」との関わりの変化を独自の視点で解説する。 さらに,バレーボール競技で重要なポジションである「セッター」の役割と技術解説及び「セッター」として必要とされる適正能力の解説と「セッター」スキルアップトレーニングの解説をする。
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菅原 正孝,藤川 陽子,濱崎 竜英,新井 剛典 / 人間環境論集9
土壌浸透法の技術的発展
<著者名>  菅原 正孝,藤川 陽子,濱崎 竜英,新井 剛典
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
 古くて新しい土壌浸透法は,自然の浄化能力を利用した水処理技術の一つであり,汚水が土壌中に浸透し流下する過程で,汚水中の汚濁物質が土壌を構成する土粒子などの物理的なろ過,化学的な吸着及び生物化学的な分解という分離・分解機能によって除去されるというものである。 浄化が可能な汚濁物質は,浮遊物質,有機物,リンなどが挙げられるが,土壌内において無機性の浮遊物質などによる目詰まりが起こりやすく,また処理速度が遅く,所要面積が大きいなど,難点があり,適用されるケースも限られている。土壌浸透法で対象とする汚水は広範にわたり,生活雑排水,し尿や畜産排水の処理水,河川や湖沼の環境水,雨水などがあげられる。 本稿では,こうした土壌浸透法の従来のシステムを概観し,あわせて筆者らがこの10年ほど携わってきた研究調査及び事例について取りまとめた。 自然土壌のみでは浄化能力は,多くは期待できない。よって,浄化機能の改善には混合土壌方式が有望である。具体的には,マサ土,黒ボク土,赤玉土などを浄化材料として利用し,活性炭,木炭,凝集剤を添加して,有機物やリンなどの栄養塩類の分離除去能を大きくする。 ろ過速度を上げるためには,多段層方式や造粒方式が必須であり,そのための様々な技術開発を行ってきた。さらには,廃棄物の有効活用の視点から,充填材の開発もあわせて行ってきた。それらの成果や実施例を概観するとともに将来に向けての適用可能性について言及した。
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藤川 陽子,菅原 正孝,濱崎 竜英,米田 大輔,南 淳志,杉本 裕亮,岩崎 元 / 人間環境論集9
砒素・鉄・マンガン・アンモニア同時除去の鉄バクテリア生物ろ過―我が国および途上国の浄水施設への適用
<著者名>  藤川 陽子,菅原 正孝,濱崎 竜英,米田 大輔,南 淳志,杉本 裕亮,岩崎 元
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
We have worked on the development of a biological filtration system utilizing indigenous bacteria to remove arsenite, arsenate, iron, manganese and ammonia from groundwater. Among various bacteria, iron bacteria (bacterial species that biologically oxidize dissolved Fe and/or Mn, and deposit them as oxides) together with nitrifiers play the most important role in our system. This report is a brief summary of our pilot study (started in 2004), treating groundwater by the biological filtration. The purpose is to determine the optimal operating conditions to achieve the most efficient removal of arsenic.
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NguyenNhu Sang,惣田 訓,石垣 智基 / 人間環境論集9
ベトナムホーチミン市における都市廃棄物の埋立処分場の現状
<著者名>  NguyenNhu Sang,惣田 訓,石垣 智基
<発行年月> 2010年03月
<ISSN> 1347-2135
<概要表示>
Current practices in landfills for municipal solid waste (MSW) in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) were reviewed. Results show that waste generation rate of HCMC's 6 million residents was more than 6,000 ton day-1 in 2003, but waste collection was only about 4,800 ton day-1. The MSW generation rate was 0.5-1.0 (0.74 in average) kg capita-1 day-1. Public service companies of local district municipalities collect household waste, waste from streets, markets, and public parks and from rivers and canals. The city environmental company transports solid waste from waste stations and operates final disposal sites. Dong Thanh (43 ha), Go Cat (25 ha), and Tam Tan (45 ha) landfills are the three main landfill sites in HCMC. Of them, only Tam Tan landfill is now in use for commingled solid waste. Go Cat landfill closed in 2007 after 6 years' operation. The Dong Thanh dumping site receives construction waste and bio-solid waste from septic tank. Dong Thanh, Go Cat, and Tam Tan landfills generate leachate of 600, 400, and 500 m3 day-1, respectively and much more during the rainy season, polluting areas near landfills. Gas emission is also causing troubles in the neighbor area. Leachate shows high organic matter contents, dark color, and odor attributable to the digestion of the high biodegradable organic fraction in the waste. By 2020, three sanitary landfills are scheduled for construction, including a new area of Tam Tan (822 ha), Da Phuoc (256 ha), and Thu Thua (1,760 ha). Strategies to improve the landfill operation are discussed for sustainable development of HCMC.
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