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高神 信一 / 経済論集第8巻第2号
イングランド新救貧法のアイルランドへの導入とG・ニコルズの調査報告書
<著者名>  高神 信一
<発行年月> 2007年02月
<ISSN> 1345-1448
<概要表示>
 In 1834 the British government established the English new poor law to curb poor relief. Its principle was that the poor should be relieved in workhouses and outdoor relief should be prohibited. The government thought that the new system would not operate successfully without stopping an influx of starving labourers from Ireland, which had no poor law system. The Government intended to introduce a poor law into Ireland and in 1836 sent George Nicholls, one of the English poor law commissioners, to Ireland to investigate the condition and habits of the Irish people for the introduction of the law. Nicholls presented three reports to Parliament, in which he justified the government’s intention. He also claimed that there should be eighty workhouses, whose construction cost would be about ?700,000. The Irish poor law bill, based on the reports of Nicholls, became a law in July 1838. The law differed from the English one in several points. In Ireland all relief was only through workhouses, while outdoor relief was sometimes permitted in England. The Irish poor law did not include both a right to relief and a law of settlement, and was far more centralised and more draconian than the English counterpart.
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斉藤 日出治 / 経済論集第8巻第2号
社会の自己認識としての社会主義─グローバルな社会的個人の生成─
<著者名>  斉藤 日出治
<発行年月> 2007年02月
<ISSN> 1345-1448
<概要表示>
I will attempt to resusciter the concept of socialism in the age of globalisation in this thesis. For this research,I want to start from reestimation of the concept of socialism by Karl Marx. Firstly, He defined socialism as self ciritical understanding of social conscience of capitalist society. Secondely he defined it as reestablishment of individual property,not of social property. Thirdly, he defined it as realisation of social individuality.  These three definitions of socialism that K.Marx defined are reappearing on a large scale in the development of global capitalism nowadays. As to self understanding of social conscience, as H. Lefebvre argued it in his critics of everyday life, the domination of capital penetrates into not only a sphere of labour process but also a sphere of consumption or culture. Therefore it is necessary to ciriticize a private conscience, and recongnize the process of socialisation under the evolution of private property.  As to the development of socialisation and social individuality, Hardt/Negrit propose the concept of common and they discover multitude as taker of common. Gerard Delanty also pays attention to the appearence of new concept of community in the age of globalisation. While traditional community tends to degenerate under the domination of market economy,, on the contrary, new community by way of information technology is developping.  Lastly I will define 21st century's socialism by the notion of fraternity.
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卓 麗雅,高増 明 / 経済論集第8巻第2号
中国のエネルギー需要の成長と二酸化炭素排出量の増加
<著者名>  卓 麗雅,高増 明
<発行年月> 2007年02月
<ISSN> 1345-1448
<概要表示>
 China is currently the second largest energy consumption country and also the second largest emitter of carbon dioxide in the world. China’s energy consumption growth rates are more than 10% in 2003 and 2004. But almost no research institutes and researchers could forecast these high growth rates before 2003. In this paper we will analyze the sauces of energy consumption growth by using the latest IEA energy balance tables and show that the rapid growth of cement and steel productions are the major factors. We will also forecast the future energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions of China and show that China’s carbon dioxide emissions will occupy almost half of the world emissions in 2030 if the current situation continues in the future.
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鄭 孝鋒 / 経済論集第8巻第2号
中国の経済成長と民間消費の役割
<著者名>  鄭 孝鋒
<発行年月> 2007年02月
<ISSN> 1345-1448
<概要表示>
 Since reform and open policy in 1978, Chinese economy has been changing greatly with “the socialist market economy” and its economic growth policy. Especially, in the 1990’s, Chinese economy has grown rapidly, and now is attracting worldwide attention. For example, 1978 to 2003, its annual average economic growth rate was 9.4%. Especially, its GDP reached 11.4 billion dollars which was 8.2 times of 1978. It is an interesting challenge to study what drives the long-term and rapid economic growth.  This paper aims to explain the following subjects; Chinese private consumption structure and its characteristic, and the role of private consumption in economic growth.  To summarize from the result of the analysis, through whole analysis period (1981-2003), private consumption contributed most highly, the investment for 2nd(36.7%), government expenses for 3rd(12.5%) and lastly pure export for the least(5.9%). In private consumption, it was remarkable that the rural area contributed more than the urban area. It was revealed that private consumption contributed most highly from 1981 to 85(58.9%), on the other hand the lowest was from 2001 to 2003(26.6%). It was examined that private consumption growth of 1 unit would make the economic growth of 1.6393 units.
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GhanShyam Gautam / 経済論集第8巻第2号
Social Security Arrangement in Nepal : Needs and Challenges Ahead
<著者名>  GhanShyam Gautam
<発行年月> 2007年02月
<ISSN> 1345-1448
<概要表示>
This study primarily examines the prevailing social security schemes in Nepal and tries to explore needs and challenges ahead. In Nepal, government initiation for providing social security services was made back in 1930s. Before the installation of multiparty democratic system in 1990, there were only two schemes, namely Employees Provident Fund and Pension covering only government sector employees. Having trifling importance until early 1990s, EPF made significant progress thereafter. It extended coverage to private sector employees and fringed additional schemes that enlarged members' choices and privileges. However, despite the dominant scheme of social security, its coverage is stringently limited and can hardly cover large portion of lower-income people even in near future. Pension scheme operates as a non-contributory plan for employees in government sector and selected institutions. Citizen Investment Trust, a voluntary saving scheme introduced in early 1990s, primarily aims to contribute capital market development by encouraging individuals to mobilize saving in tax-exempted manner. Recently introduced Allowance scheme pays elderly and incapables with small sums of cash benefit. In aggregate, government employees and elderly people are in the center of existing arrangement while integration is lacking among the schemes. Further, notwithstanding the poverty-ridden societies and widening income disparity in Nepal, there is no considerable provision for risk pooling and income redistribution. Similarly, efforts are lacking to bring health services into social security ambit. In effect, existing structure favors those who are relatively in better-off situation. Notably, notwithstanding the noteworthy expansion in recent years, large part of the population remains beyond social security coverage and the system is still in its infancy. Prevailing circumstances of limited coverage, fading out of traditional measures, widening risks and increasing public consciousness on social security have jointly necessitated for the expansion of social security services in the country. Finally, having poor financing capacity of both government and the public, government commitment and the public eagerness to join the system are important for universalizing the coverage in Nepal.
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Ashrafuzzaman Mohammad / 経済論集第8巻第2号
Foreign Direct Investment and EPZs in Bangladesh
<著者名>  Ashrafuzzaman Mohammad
<発行年月> 2007年02月
<ISSN> 1345-1448
<概要表示>
 The paper aims at tracing the trajectory of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flowing into Bangladesh. The analysis of the trend and pattern of FDI in the country indicates that, on the whole, the volume of FDI had been increasing over the years. As regards sources of FDI, Asian NICs are the largest investors in the country. Export Processing Zone (EPZs) were found to have a notable role in FDI scenario of Bangladesh, and the average foreign capital in EPZs contributed to around 20% of the total stock of FDI in the country. This study has found that in order to entice foreign investors, Bangladesh had to improve its overall investment climate with an emphasis on political climate, labor productivity and infrastructure development. Further, the EPZs in Bangladesh have been instrumental in creating salutary benefits in terms of flow of foreign investment, employment generation, export and foreign exchange earnings, value added, and linkages have been taken place. EPZs are considered as most appropriate for Bangladesh economy striving to develop manufactured exports. Comparison with EPZs performance in South Asian countries, Bangladesh has focused better performance rather than other South Asian countries. The overall analysis shows that the volume of FDI has been increasing over the years both EPZs and DTA area. FDI is an important source of capital for Bangladesh and Bangladesh may promote economic development by contributing to productivity growth and exports as well as by improving labor skill.
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林田 治男 / 経済論集第8巻第2号
研究資料;レイ契約の締結〜解約関連資料─裁判記録から
<著者名>  林田 治男
<発行年月> 2007年02月
<ISSN> 1345-1448
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